[53] Who are the Ahlul Bayt’

Who does the Quran refer to when it says Ahlul Bayt? Sheikh Azhar Nasser compares Sunni and Shia viewpoints based on hadit from Sunni sources.

The three main perspectives are:

– It includes the Prophet’s wives, Bani Hashim, and the Holy Five (Ali, Fatima, Hassan, Hussain, and Prophet Muhammad)

– It includes just Bani Hashim and the Holy Five

– It includes just the Holy Five (shia perspective)

Sheikh Azhar discusses arguments for and against the verse of Purity (Quran 33:33) applying the wives as well as the Holy Five, looking at the verse in context with the surrounding verses.

The discussion covers:

– Why are wives referenced before and after this verse?

– Are wives actually being praised?

– Changes in pronouns

– Meaning of “warding off filth”

– Context changing from “Your houses” to “The house”

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[52] Aisha’s Personality’

Continuing the comparison of Shia and Sunni views on Aisha bint Abu Bakr, Sheikh Azhar compares Shia and Sunni perspectives on hadiths that cause each sect to have their varying opinions on Aisha.

Hadiths covered include:

– (Bukhari/Sahih Muslim) Prophet Muhammad apparently pointing to Aisha’s house and saying “fitna is from here”

– (Bukhari) Prophet Muhammad saying Aisha is like “the female companion of Yusuf”, i.e. Zulayqha

– (Bukhari/Muslim) Various hadith given by Aisha that include implications of the prophet listening to women singing and being bewitched and halucinating, thus damaging the prophet’s dignity with their alleged stories. (Shias reject the validity of these hadith)

Key message: The above and the discussions from the last lecture give Shia scholars enough reservations about Aisha’s narrations that they prefer to get their teachings from more reliable sources like Imam Ali and Lady Fatima

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[51] Aisha bint Abu Bakr

Comparing the Shia and Sunni views on Aisha, the daughter of Abu Bakr and third wife of Prophet Muhammad. Sheikh Azhar also explains why the two sects may have such divergent views of her.

The lecture dives into:

– Why Shia’s believe Aisha was in her late teens when she married Prophet Muhammad (vs the Sunni narrative of being 9 years old)

– How Aisha gained an prominence above other wives of Propeht Muhammad

– Quranic verses establishing that the wives of Prophet Muhammad could choose to do either good or evil (Quran 33:30-31)

– Comparing views on whether the Verse of Purification applies to all wives of the prophet or only Imam Ali, Lady Fatima, and their children

– Quranic verses (Surah 66, verses 3-5) that accuse two wives of their deviation and threatens retribution. Sunnis and Shias both agree they refer to Aisha and Hafsa (another wife)

– Comparing Sunni/Shia views on whether there’s enough evidence of Aisha’s repentance after the above Quranic condemnation to depend on her as a reliable narrator of hadith

– Why Shias don’t believe the Quranic title “The Mothers of the Believers” was intended to honor Prophet Muhammad’s wives

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[50] The Prophet’s Wives

At the end of the battle of Badr, Abu Sufyan had challenged the Muslims to a rematch a year later. This rematch was known as the Second Battle of Badr, and after seeing how much stronger the Muslims had gotten the Meccans were demoralized and decided to march back to Mecca. And so no battle never actually took place.

Around this time period many of the Prophet’s multiple marriages took place. Reasons for those marriages included:

– Protecting vulnerable Muslim women

– Establishing peaceful ties with hostile tribes

– Teaching men to free their slave girls and marry them

– Promote the spirit of interfaith

– Demonstrating how to deal with marital conflict

– Testing the believers to see if they would believe the prophet or his wives

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[49] Prohibiting Alcohol

This lecture covers:

– The gradual prohibition of Alcohol

– Passing of Fatima bint Asad (Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib’s mother)

– Birth of Imam Husayn

– Prophet Muhammad’s Marriage to Umm Salamah

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[48] Banishment of Banu Nadhir

Prophet Muhammad approached the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadhir to help the Muslims make peace between themselves and another Jewish tribe, only to discover at the last minute that Banu Nadhir was planning to assassinate him.

Why? The Banu Nadir couldn’t accept a gentile as the final messenger of God. They considered it degrading to be subservient to a non-Jew.

Faced with this treachery, Prophet Muhammad commanded them to take their belongings and leave Medina in ten days.

The Banu Nadhir initially refuse, preparing for war, but surrender once the Muslims besieged their fortress. Despite their willingness to fight the Prophet still allowed the tribe to depart, but orders them to leave their weapons behind this time. Banu Nadhir reloate to the Fortress of Khaybar

Surah Al Hashr (#59) verses 1-16 describe this encounter.

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[47] Uhud: The Aftermath

After the Battle of Uhud:

– Quraysh mutilate the bodies of Muslims

– Prophet Muhammad sends a reconnissance mission to see if the Quraysh will invade Medina or return to Mecca

– Various verses of the Quran are revealed to console the Muslims and instruct them on how to recover from the losses

– The Meccans decide to come back to finish off the Muslims, but their army is scared away

– Nomadic tribes, emboldened by the Muslim’s defeat at Uhud, try to raid the Muslims

Key lessons from the Battle of Uhud:

– Do not be naive and assume anyone who claims to be a Muslim is a believer at heart. Uhud exposed the munafiqeen

– God’s help is guaranteed when Muslims are united and obey the Prophet

– Being Muslim doesn’t guarantee victory. Believers must struggle and endure hardships to achieve success

– Beware of succumbing to material temptations. Love of the world can blind even those fighting alongside the prophet

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[46] Uhud: Victory to Defeat

As the Quraysh fled, the archers watching the army’s back rushed to gather the spoils of war.

The enemy noticed this and launched a cavalry counter attack from the unprotected rear, changing the tide of the war.

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[45] Uhud: The First Skirmish’

With archers defending their backs, Ali ibn Abi Talib starts the skirmish with one on one battles, defeating nine opponents in a row.

Quickly, the Qurayshi army becomes demoralized and starts fleeing.

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[44] The Battle of Uhud’

– The Muslims marched towards the invaders with an army of 1000 men.

– Munafiqs revealed: Abdullah ibn Ubayy deserted the army and left with 300 of the men, the munafiqs.

– Battle tactics used by Prophet Muhammad

– Fortications abandoned: The prophet gave the archerers unambiguous instructions to maintain a defensive position, yet they were ignored to try and obtain some spoils of war, giving the enemy a critical advantage

In many ways, this event was a precursor to Imam Ali’s succession being ignored years down the road:

– If 300 men were blatantly hypocritical when the population was just 2000, then how many must have been munafiqs when there were 100,000 Muslims when the Prophet Muhammad passed away?

– The prophet gave clear, unambiguous instructions to the archers, yet they were ignored for some spoils of war. What instructions might such people ignore to gain the caliphate?

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